CO

What is CO and why should we care about it?

Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourless gas with a higher affinity than oxygen for haemoglobin in blood. Hence, when inhaled, it can deprive body tissues of oxygen.

Exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide may cause nausea and impair vigilance. In excessive doses, it can cause death through asphyxiation. The sources of carbon monoxide range from vehicular emissions and cigarette smoke, to the incomplete combustion of fuels. Vehicular emission accounts for most of the carbon monoxide in the air.

PM2.5 and PM10

What is PM2.5/PM10 and why should we care about it?

Respirable particulate matter, PM10, refers to particulate matter of size 10 μm or below in aerodynamic diameter. PM2.5 refers to fine particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less in aerodynamic diameter. PM2.5 particles have serious health implications as they are able to penetrate into the deeper regions of the respiratory tract. At elevated levels, the particles cause breathing and respiratory problems, and aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicles and industries are major domestic sources of PM2.5 in Singapore.

NO2

What is NO2 and why should we care about it?

High levels of nitrogen dioxide increase the tisk of respiratory infection and impair lung functions in asthmatics.

SO2

What is SO2 and why should we care about it?

Sulphur dioxide is an undesirable by-product from the combustion of sulphur-containing fuels and from petroleum refining processes. Exposure to high levels of sulphur dioxide has the potential to impair respiratory function and aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

Ground level ozone

What is ground level ozone and why should we care about it?

Ozone in the stratosphere is desirable as it protects life on Earth by absorbing much of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. However, ozone occurring in the lower atmosphere is a health hazard. Ozone can severely irritate eyes, mucous membranes and the respiratory system in humans. Low-level ozone is mainly produced by the complex reactions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds catalysed by sunlight.

Efforts to reduce pollutants

Industries are major contributor of SO2 and PM. To reduce emissions from industries, we:

  • Impose SO2 caps on key industrial emitters
  • Legislate industrial emission concentration standards
  • Administer an incentive scheme to encourage adoption of highly efficient pollution control equipment
  • Mandated the supply of Near Sulphur-Free Diesel (NSFD) with a sulphur content of 0.001% to further reduce SO2 emissions from diesel vehicles and industries.
  • Work with major emitters (e.g. power stations) to reduce SO2 emissions
  • Conduct real-time emissions monitoring of major emitters

Vehicles are major contributors of PM, NOx, Ozone and CO. To reduce emissions from vehicles, we:

  • Tighten emission standards for new vehicles and motorcycles
  • Enforce fuel quality regulations
  • Encourage the turnover of old diesel commercial vehicles through the Early Turnover Scheme
  • Conduct enforcement on smoky and idling vehicles
  • Encourage the purchase of new cleaner vehicles through the Vehicle Emission Scheme
  • Tighten In-use emission standards for petrol vehicles and motorcycles
LTA_road4
ExxonMobil - new Singapore hydrotreater
24-hr mean (Max)
[{"x":"2012","y":"98"},{"x":"2013","y":"75"},{"x":"2014","y":"83"},{"x":"2015","y":"75"},{"x":"2016","y":"61"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
50
2020 target : 50 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
20
WHO Guidelines : 20 μg/m3
#0E3147
2020
50
WHO Interim target : 50 μg/m3
Annual
[{"x":"2012","y":"13"},{"x":"2013","y":"14"},{"x":"2014","y":"12"},{"x":"2015","y":"12"},{"x":"2016","y":"13"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
15
2020 target : 15 μg/m3
Annual
[{"x":"2012","y":"29"},{"x":"2013","y":"31"},{"x":"2014","y":"30"},{"x":"2015","y":"37"},{"x":"2016","y":"26"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
20
2020 target : 20 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
20
WHO Guidelines : 20 μg/m3
24-hr mean (99th percentile)
[{"x":"2012","y":"57"},{"x":"2013","y":"215"},{"x":"2014","y":"75"},{"x":"2015","y":"186"},{"x":"2016","y":"61"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
50
2020 target : 50 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
50
WHO Guidelines : 50 μg/m3
8-hr mean (Max)
[{"x":"2012","y":"122"},{"x":"2013","y":"139"},{"x":"2014","y":"135"},{"x":"2015","y":"152"},{"x":"2016","y":"115"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
100
2020 target : 100 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
100
WHO Guidelines : 100 μg/m3
1-hr mean (Max)
[{"x":"2012","y":"154"},{"x":"2013","y":"132"},{"x":"2014","y":"121"},{"x":"2015","y":"99"},{"x":"2016","y":"123"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
200
2020 target : 200 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
200
WHO Guidelines : 200 μg/m3
Annual
[{"x":"2012","y":"25"},{"x":"2013","y":"25"},{"x":"2014","y":"24"},{"x":"2015","y":"22"},{"x":"2016","y":"26"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
40
2020 target : 40 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
40
WHO Guidelines : 40 μg/m3
Annual
[{"x":"2012","y":"19"},{"x":"2013","y":"20"},{"x":"2014","y":"18"},{"x":"2015","y":"24"},{"x":"2016","y":"15"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
12
2020 target : 12 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
10
WHO Guidelines : 10 μg/m3
#0E3147
2020
15
WHO Interim target : 15 μg/m3
24-hr mean (99th percentile)
[{"x":"2012","y":"42"},{"x":"2013","y":"176"},{"x":"2014","y":"51"},{"x":"2015","y":"145"},{"x":"2016","y":"40"}]
 (μg/m3)
#F26629
2020
37.5
2020 target : 37.5 μg/m3
#10828C
2020
25
WHO Guidelines : 25 μg/m3
#0E3147
2020
37.5
WHO Interim target : 37.5 μg/m3
8-hr mean (Max)
[{"x":"2012","y":"1.9"},{"x":"2013","y":"5.5"},{"x":"2014","y":"1.8"},{"x":"2015","y":"3.3"},{"x":"2016","y":"2.2"}]
 (mg/m3)
#F26629
2020
10
2020 target : 10 mg/m3
#10828C
2020
10
WHO Guidelines : 10 mg/m3
1-hr mean (Max)
[{"x":"2012","y":"2.4"},{"x":"2013","y":"7.5"},{"x":"2014","y":"2.7"},{"x":"2015","y":"3.5"},{"x":"2016","y":"2.7"}]
 (mg/m3)
#F26629
2020
30
2020 target : 30 mg/m3
#10828C
2020
30
WHO Guidelines : 30 mg/m3